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Delayed muscle soreness, muscle function and evidence of leukocytes in human skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise MacIntyre, Donna Lee

Abstract

The three primary purposes of these studies were to 1) characterize the time course and the relationships among delayed onset muscle soreness, eccentric muscle torque, serum creatine phosphokinase and urinary hydroxyproline in response to two exercise durations; 2) to examine whether there was increased presence of leukocytes in the exercised muscle compared to the contra-lateral non-exercised muscle; and 3) to determine the time course and the relationships among eccentric muscle torque, muscle fatigue, range of motion, the presence of leukocytes, and delayed onset muscle soreness following the eccentric exercise. In the first study, the dependent variables were measured before and after 180 (shorter duration) and 300 (longer duration) eccentric repetitions of the quadriceps muscles. Eccentric torque of the quadriceps muscles was evaluated utilizing the same parameters of range of motion and velocity of movement as the exercise stimulus. Muscle soreness was evaluated by the Descriptor Differential Scale which reflects the sensory (intensity of soreness) and affective (unpleasantness) components of the discomfort. In the second study, a radionuclide technique was used to determine the presence of leukocytes in the exercised muscle. Muscle fatigue was assessed with a power spectrum analysis. The greatest intensity of soreness and unpleasantness was between 20 and 48 hours postexercise. The presence of leukocytes in the exercised muscle was significantly greater than in the contra-lateral non-exercised muscle. Additional data collection before 24 hours post exercise revealed a biphasic response in eccentric torque, not reported previously in humans. Eccentric torque declined immediately after the exercise stimulus and again at 20 to 24 hours post-exercise. Fatigue of the vastus lateralis muscle was most evident at 2 hours post-exercise. The greatest loss of range of motion occurred at 24 hours post exercise. Significant correlations were found between unpleasantness and creatine phosphokinase, intensity of soreness and creatine phosphokinase, and unpleasantness and range of motion. Using a radionuclide imaging technique allowed a quantitative evaluation of the widespread distribution of the leukocytes compared to the smaller sample that would have been evaluated from microscopic examination of human muscle biopsies. Previously only focal injury has been shown due to the sampling limitations of using isolated muscle biopsies.

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