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A two mobilized-plane model and its application for soil liquefaction analysis Park, Sung-Sik

Abstract

Liquefaction-induced displacements have caused severe damage to buildings, bridges, and dams during past earthquakes. A reliable procedure for prediction of liquefaction and resulting displacements is necessary for rational design of earth structures resting on liquefiable soils. State-of-the-art procedures for evaluating liquefaction involve dynamic finite element or finite difference analyses using various constitutive models coupled with fluid flow effects. A constitutive model representing skeleton behaviour of soils is most important for analyses because the tendency of the soil skeleton to contract and dilate controls its liquefaction response. Most conventional constitutive models can capture the response of conventional triaxial test specimens under hydrostatically consolidated conditions where no gradual rotation of principal axes occurs. However, field stress conditions are significantly different from such laboratory conditions, especially during earthquake loading, where conditions involve rotation of principal axes, and are more similar to simple shear loading. Conventional plasticity models cannot model rotation of principal axis, and in addition consider unloading as elastic, which is not generally consistent with observed soil behaviour. A new constitutive model called UBCSAND2, formulated in the framework of classical plasticity, is proposed to address these concerns. The model is aimed at soil liquefaction problems that involve a reduction in mean effective stress and consider only shear-induced plastic behaviour. It is capable of handling plastic unloading and principal stress rotation associated with anisotropic consolidation during simple shear. It is referred to as a Two Mobilized-plane model since shear-induced yielding is considered on two specific planes: a plane of maximum shear stress, which swings, and a horizontal plane which is spatially fixed. The plastic strain increments computed on the two planes are added to calculate plastic response. Models based on the plane of maximum shear stress alone are particularly sensitive to lateral effective stress ratio K (= ϭ'[sub h]/ϭ'[sub v]), whereas the proposed model gives a similar skeleton behaviour for soils at the same density and mean stress, regardless of the value of K, as observed in laboratory tests. The soil skeleton behaviour observed in cyclic drained simple shear tests, including compaction during unloading and dilation at large strain, is well captured by the new model. Undrained monotonic and cyclic response is predicted by imposing the volumetric constraint of the water on the drained or skeleton behaviour. The proposed model is calibrated/validated using data from monotonic, cyclic drained, and constant volume (equivalent to undrained condition) simple shear tests on sands with and without initial static shear stress on a horizontal plane. The model has seven model parameters and is validated for plane strain condition. It is further validated by predicting the response observed in dynamic centrifuge tests modeling sloping ground conditions. Several other considerations such as stress-induced densification, effect of saturation, effect of static shear, and stress reversal have been explored that significantly influence physical modeling using centrifuge tests. The proposed model becomes especially valuable when predicting soil behaviour in slopes where initial K conditions vary.

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