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Bis(ethene)rhodium(I) [beta]-diketonates and related complexes, catalytic and ¹H NMR spectroscopic studies Wickenheiser, Eugene Benedict


A series of bis(ethene)rhodium(I) complexes of β-diketonates and similar ligands were prepared. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, ¹H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Crystal structures are reported for bis(η²-ethene)-(1,3(1-ferrocenyl)butanedionato-0.0 ')rhodium(I), 13, (1,5-cyclooctadieiie)(2-acetylphen-oxy-0,0')rhodium(I),18, and some related molecules. [FORMULA OMITTED] The complexes are catalyst precursors for the homogeneous hydrogenation of olefins and the hydrosilylation of ketones. The generated hydrogenation catalysts are effective for the reduction of sterically unhindered carbon-carbon double bonds. These catalysts are active in the presence of alcohol, aromatic and carboxylic acid functional groups on the olefin substrate. The catalysts decompose to give a heterogeneously active rhodium precipitate when reducing olefinic substrates which are too sterically hindered. Study of the hydrosilylation reaction revealed that the complexes generate active hydrosilylation catalysts. A series of optically active ligands were tested for their ability to effect asymmetry in the silyl ether products. The bis(ethene)rhodium(I) complexes are fluxional in the NMR time scale due to the motion of the ethylene ligands. A detailed ¹H NMR study was conducted on one of the complexes, bis(η²-ethene)(2-acetylphenoxy-0,0 ')rhodium(I) 15 to explore the nature of the rearrangement. [FORMULA OMITTED] The ¹H NMR study revealed the presence of two different modes of fluxionality. The first type of motion is intramolecular in nature and is due to the rotation of the ethylene ligands about the rhodium-ethylene bond axis. The second type is intermolecular in nature and is due to exchange of the ethylene ligands. This exchange is a measure of the lability of the ethylene ligands. The system allowed the separate study of the ethylene ligands and ΔG‡ values were obtained for each ligand for both of the exchange processes. The results of the study indicate the independance of the ethylene ligands with respect to both fluxional processes.

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