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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The prediction of heat transfer in rough pipes McAndrew, Murray Alexander


An evaluation of methods for predicting turbulent heat transfer in rough pipes has been made with the intention of obtaining a better understanding of the transfer processes involved and of providing a general design equation, valid for all types of roughness shapes and distributions. The equations of Martinelli, Nunner, and Mattioli, along with an empirical method suggested by Epstein, have been tested using the available experimental data. In addition, particular attention has been given to a proposed method which makes use of the velocity profile equations of Rouse and von Karman in Lyon's fundamental equation for the Nusselt number. The results indicate that the proposed method is not successful, largely because of ignorance of velocity conditions near the walls of rough pipes. Mattioli's equation also does not give a satisfactory correlation of experimental results. Epstein's empirical method, which, in the pertinent dimensionless groups, uses friction velocity and equivalent sand-roughness height of the roughness elements in place of the average fluid velocity and the pipe diameter, respectively, shows promise but requires further investigation. Nunner's equation and Martinelli's (simplified) equation give good prediction of the experimental results and are recommended for use at present, providing 0.5 < Pr < 1.0. The success of these latter equations gives support to the hypothesis that the fluid adjacent to a rough wall is probably in laminar motion. Using Nunner's model of the flow conditions in rough pipes, equations have been derived for predicting temperature profiles from velocity profile data. Generally, the absolute agreement between predicted profiles and Nunner’s experimental profiles is good, but the influences of Re and especially f are not too well accounted for. Nunner's conclusion that temperature and velocity profiles in rough pipes are not similar is substantiated by the results.

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