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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Integration and democratization of Zambian agricultural extension Machila, Margaret Mavis Chinyama


Lifelong education occurs in a combination of formal and non-formal settings throughout an entire lifetime. Educators such as Dewey (1916), the authors of the 1919 Report, and authors of UNESCO position papers during the 1970's emphasized the need for democratic access to educational opportunities which are integrated horizontally across a variety of settings and vertically over a range of ages. An example of the problems caused by the lack of such democratization and integration is found in this study of Zambian agricultural extension. It assesses programs of the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Development in Zambia in terms of procedures relating to staffing, training, physical resources, financing, research and technology. It was found that there is limited integration and democratization of the procedures studied. A much more participatory and co-ordinated approach at several levels is recommended. Well integrated efforts of different agricultural extension providers might better serve all farmers in their struggle to reverse the decline in agricultural production which has occurred in recent years. Further research would assist this process and enhance an understanding of lifelong education.

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