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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The relationship of teachers' expectations and academic learning time in grade six physical education classes Cousineau, William J.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teachers' expectations of performance, teacher training, and student gender, with student achieved Academic Learning Time (A.L.T.) of grade six students. To examine the following relationships four main hypotheses were generated. It was hypothesized that: 1 There would be a positive relationship between A.L.T. and teachers' expectations of performance in Physical Education. 2 Teachers with Physical Education majors would have greater A.L.T. than those with Physical Education minors, or generalist classroom teachers. 3 There would be no difference in A.L.T. totals between student gender. 4 There would be less student off-task time in Physical Education majors classes, than in the Physical Education minors, and the generalist teachers'. This study also examines the relationship between teachers' perception of student effort, student grades in physical education, and student achieved Academic Learning Time. Finally, it was possible to investigate how student expectations of performance are developed by teachers in Physical Education. Six, grade six, classes taught by male teachers were selected for observation in the study. Two P.E. majors, two P.E. minors, and two generalist teachers' classes were observed. Each of these teachers conducted a rank-ordering of students in their class, based on their expectation of student performance. From this rank ordering, six students from each class were selected for observation during the study. Each class was observed three times, using the Academic Learning Time Version II instrument to collect data. At the conclusion of the study, teachers were also asked to submit student grades for the first and second term, rate student effort over the three observed lessons, and complete a teacher demographic information sheet. Results indicated that a positive relationship existed between teachers' expectancy and A.L.T.. It was found that P.E. majors had higher A.L.T. than did P.E. minors, or generalist teachers. No significant difference was found between student gender groups. Differences in off-task time levels were not noted between teacher training groups. A significant relationship was found between student perceived effort and student A.L.T.. Finally, it was indicated that teachers primarily use student ability and skill level in determining students' expectancy level. Recommendations for future research on this topic suggest that a larger sample size be used and that lesson and activity structure be controlled in comparative A.L.T. studies. It appears that more research is needed to substantiate the relationship between A.L.T. and teacher training, and the relationship between student achievement and A.L.T..

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