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The stratigraphy and structure of the type-area of the Chilliwack group, : southwestern British Columbia Monger, James William Heron


The stratigraphy and structure of Upper Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and of amphibolitic rocks of unknown age, were studied in an area of about 140 square miles in the Cascade Mountains of southwestern British Columbia. The amphibolitic rocks are probably of diverse origins; their stratigraphic relationship to the other rocks is not known, although they may, in part, be equivalent to pre-Devonian rocks in northwestern Washington. Upper Palaeozoic rocks comprise the Chilliwack Group. The base is not exposed. Oldest rocks are volcanic arenites and argillites which are overlain by an argillaceous limestone, about 100 feet thick, in which Early Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) fusulinids occur. Apparently conformably overlying the limestone is a succession of argillites, coarse volcanic arenites, minor conglomerate and local tuff, which contains both marine and terrestrial fossils and ranges in thickness from 450 to 800 feet. A cherty limestone, generally about 300 feet thick, in which there is an Early Permian (Leonardian) fusulinid fauna, is conformable upon the clastic sequence. Altered lavas and tuffs are in part laterally equivalent to this Permian limestone, and, in part, overlie it; these volcanic rocks range in thickness from 700 to 2,000 feet. Disconformably above the Permian volcanic rocks are argillites and volcanic arenites of the Cultus Formation. This formation is apparently about 4,000 feet thick, contains Late Triassic, Early and Late Jurassic fossils and no stratigraphic breaks have been recognized within it. All of these rocks underwent two phases of deformation between Late Jurassic and Miocene time. The first phase, correlated with mid-Cretaceous deformation in northwestern Washington, was the most severe., and thrusts and major, northeast-trending recumbent folds were formed. These structures subsequently were folded and faulted along a northwest trend, possibly in response to differential uplift of the Cascade Mountains.

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