UBC Theses and Dissertations
Sampling stream sediments for gold in mineral exploration, southern British Columbia Day, Stephen John
The problems encountered by mineral explorationists when sampling stream sediments for gold were investigated by considering the sparsity of free gold particles and their tendency to form small placers at certain locations in the stream bed. Fourteen 20-kg samples of -5-mm sediment were collected from contrasting energy and geochemical environments in five streams draining gold occurrences in southern British Columbia. The samples were sieved to six size fractions (420 µm to 52 µm) and gold content was determined by neutron activation analysis following preparation of two density fractions using methylene iodide. Gold concentrations were converted to estimated number of free gold particles and the Poisson probability distribution was used to show that much larger field samples (>100 kg of -1 mm screened sediment) would be required to reduce random variability due to nugget effects to acceptable levels. However, in a comparison of conventional sampling methods, the lowest probability of failing to detect a stream sediment gold anomaly is obtained using the sampling method described in this study. Small-scale placer formation was investigated by collecting twenty 60-kg samples of -2-mm sediment from ten locations along five kilometres of Harris Creek in the Okanagan region, east of Vernon. Samples were prepared and analysed as described above though heavy-mineral concentrates were only prepared for two size fractions. Gold was found to be considerably enriched in sandy-gravel deposits compared to sand deposits, with the effect decreasing as sediment size decreased. The level of enrichment varies on the stream in response to changing channel slope and local hydraulic conditions. Gold anomaly dilution is apparent in sand deposits but not apparent in sandy-gravel deposits since gold is preferentially deposited in gravels as channel slope decreases. These results are presented in the framework of H.A. Einstein's sediment transport model. Sediment collected from gravels may represent the best geochemical sample since placer-forming processes produce high gold concentrations, however in very high energy streams, the small quantities of fine sediment in gravels may lead to unacceptable nugget effects. In the latter case, a sample collected from a sand deposit is a satisfactory alternative.
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