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Adapted meditation on soles of the feet in trained and non-trained settings with an elementary school student at risk for a behaviour disorder : a clinical case study Sosa, Mayela L.


A fair proportion of children at risk for a behavioural disorder may experience academic failure as their academic performance is below their same-age peer group. This study evaluated the effects of a Meditation on the Soles of the Feet (SoF), enhanced with functional assessment and general case programing, on student academic engaged time and problem behaviour in trained and non-trained classroom settings. Participants included an 11-year-old student at risk for a behaviour disorder and a Grade 5-6 classroom teacher in an alternative program for students at risk for behaviour disorders located in a public elementary school. Five classes were selected and defined in collaboration with the student’s teacher (i.e., mathematics, social studies, social emotional learning, novel studies, and arts) in which the student manifested low academic engaged time and low to moderate levels of problem behaviour. Functional assessment results and general case programing were used to select three classroom settings as training settings and two classroom settings as non-trained (i.e., generalization) settings. Dependent variables were: (a) academic engaged time (AET); and (b) problem behaviour. The study employed an empirical case study design across two phases, baseline and intervention. Following baseline measurement, the student participant was taught to engage in SoF during five 1:1 training sessions in which role play scenarios were conducted. The scenarios were informed by general case instructional design logic and functional assessment results. Results documented two basic effects between SoF enhanced with general case programing and an increased in AET and a decrease in problem behaviour across the three training settings and two generalization settings. Social validity results indicated that both the teacher and student found the goals, procedures and outcomes of the adapted SoF intervention to be important and acceptable. Results are discussed in terms of their relation to the literature, unique contributions, implications, limitations, and future research.

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