UBC Theses and Dissertations
Microparticles of dietary fiber for its use as a fat replacer Silva Zamora, Rocio
The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes 2, and cancer, (WHO, 2016). Thus, fat reduction has become one of the major concerns in the food industry and research communities. However, the fat content has a clear impact on food texture, hence fat reduction highly impacts acceptance by the consumer. Such impact can be bypassed by processing carbohydrates into microparticles for their use as a fat replacer. Whenever the particle size is maintained under the threshold of perception, important properties derived from the presence of fat are maintained. The present work demonstrates the application of the spray drying technique to produce microparticulates of dietary fibers, with particle sizes less than 10 µm and examines their role as fat replacers for hazelnut spread. Microparticles of inulin, konjac glucomannan, chia mucilage and psyllium husk were generated for their use as a fat replacer. The use of spray drying leads to high yields (83 %) and microparticles with a projected area equivalent diameter between 5 to 11 μm, a size range representing fat globules. Results demonstrated that spray-dried microparticles composed of dietary fibers were an optimal fat replacer for hazelnut spread creams. Optimization of a dietary fiber formulation containing these fibers, to obtain high viscosity, water holding capacity, and oil holding capacity was conducted. Microparticles containing 46.1, 46.2, and 7.6 weight percentage of chia mucilage, konjac glucomannan, and psyllium husk showed a spraying yield of 83.45%, solubility of 84.63%, and viscosity of 40.49 Pas. When applied to hazelnut spread creams, microparticles substituted palm oil by 100% and produced a product with total and saturated fat reduction of 41 and 77 %, respectively. An increase in dietary fibers of 4 % and a decrease in total calories of 80 % were also induced when compared with the original formulation. Hazelnut spread with dietary fiber microparticles was preferred by 73.13% of participants in the sensory study due to an enhancement in brightness. The demonstrated technique could be used to increase the fiber content while decreasing the fat content in some commercial products, such as peanut butter or chocolate spread.
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