UBC Theses and Dissertations
Hidden variable models and classical simulation algorithms for quantum computation with magic states on qubits Zurel, Michael
An important problem in quantum computation is to characterize the resources required for a computational speedup over classical computation. Veitch et al. showed that one necessary condition for a computational speedup in the model of quantum computation with magic states is that the discrete Wigner function representing the input state of the quantum circuit must take negative values. The amount of negativity in the discrete Wigner function quantifies the complexity of classical simulation of a quantum computation with simulation being efficient if the Wigner function is nonnegative everywhere. In this sense, negativity of the Wigner quasiprobability representation serves as an indicator of quantumness from a computational perspective. However, this result only holds for systems of qudits where the local Hilbert space dimension is odd. The first main result discussed in this thesis relates to a discrete Wigner function suitable for describing quantum computation with magic states defined for any local Hilbert space dimension. When the local Hilbert space dimension is odd it subsumes the standard discrete Wigner function. When the local Hilbert space dimension is even, as a result of state-independent proofs of contextuality among multiqubit (or multi-even-dimensional-qudit) Pauli observables, the phase space over which the Wigner function is defined becomes much larger. However, for systems of qubits, the properties required for simulation of quantum computation with magic states remain. This simulation method effectively extends the result described above for odd-dimensional qudits to qubits. Although in the even-dimensional case the phase space is much larger, points in multiqubit phase space can be characterized and classified and some structure can be imparted on the phase space. The second main result discussed here is a hidden variable model for quantum computation with magic states on qubits. This model is similar in structure to quasiprobability representations like the discrete Wigner function, but unlike those representations the model is capable of representing all elements of any quantum computation---states, operations, and measurements---using only classical probabilities. No negativity is required. This calls into question the role of negativity in quasiprobability representations as an indicator of quantumness for models of quantum computation.
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