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Novel few-layer black phosphorus nanostructure fabrication methods and DFT simulations Liu, Teren


This paper reports the successful fabrication of large size few-layer black phosphorus, and nano-patterning of 2-dimensional black phosphorus by a top-down lithography and etching approach. The wet etching process can etch selected regions of few-layer black phosphorous with an atomic layer accuracy. This etch method is deep-UV and e-beam lithography process compatible, and is free of oxygen and other common doping sources. 10 nm deep BP trenches were successfully fabricated. Density function theory (DFT) simulations proved that that the etching is bond-breaking-driven instead of intercalation-driven. It provides a feasible patterning approach for large-scale manufacturing of few-layer BP materials and devices. The wet etching method was applied to fabricate twisted-stacked BP with the interface as a Moiré pattern. DFT was used to simulate the phonon vibrations and Raman spectra of the Moiré pattern. Our DFT results indicate that a novel interlayer interaction may exist in this kind of structures. Experimental work by Tao Fang confirmed the simulation results.

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