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The effects of individualizing an early numeracy intervention for kindergarteners struggling with early mathematics Durica, Jovanka


Numerous longitudinal studies demonstrate that students who perform poorly in mathematics at the end of kindergarten continue to perform poorly throughout elementary school. This finding is critical as early mathematics knowledge is not only vital for later success in mathematics, it is the greatest predictor of overall academic success. Hence, a compelling starting point for intervention is kindergarten; effective intervention in early numeracy would lead to success with later mathematics, and consequently academics in general. The current study employed a multiple baseline design (multiple probe technique) to determine if individualization of a standard protocol early numeracy intervention is effective in improving early numeracy skills of struggling kindergarteners. A functional relationship (3 demonstrations of a basic effect) was found for number identification. Two of the three participants required extensive individualization before this effect was demonstrated. The fourth participant’s lack of effect was due to improving performance in baseline, which complicated analysis. Additionally, there was an increase in broad early numeracy skills from pre-baseline to post-intervention for all participants. Implications and future directions for research are discussed.

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