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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Cross-cultural equivalence of Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) for Pakistani Canadian immigrants and others Waseem, Rida


The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the measurement equivalence of one of the most widely used depression measures, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) for the Canadian Pakistani immigrants and other Canadians. The data were collected from 400 university students in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). To examine the measurement equivalence of the BDI-II, the data were analyzed using a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) and differential item functioning (DIF) analysis. The results of MG-CFA showed evidence of configural and metric invariance, however, no sufficient evidence for scalar invariance was found. The DIF analysis identified differential response patterns in three items for the two comparison groups. The expert reviews of items provided potential sources of inequivalence. The CFA, DIF analysis and expert reviews jointly provided evidence of inequivalence which suggests, caution should be taken when comparing depressive symptoms for Pakistani to non-Pakistani populations in Canada based on BDI-II. The results from the study are expected to help researchers in modifying and developing new measures for Pakistani or other South Asian ethnic groups.

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