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Daily intake of grape powder protects kidney function in obese ZSF-1 rats Almomen, Salwa Muhamad K.

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome (diabetes, hypertension, obesity and hypercholesteremia) increases the risk of high-mortality chronic diseases including chronic kidney disease, which accounts for 50% of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the developed world. Over 1/3 of the world’s adult population have metabolic syndrome. Oxidative stress plays a central role in metabolic syndrome pathophysiology. Grape is one of the broadly studied natural anti-oxidants. Literature demonstrates grape antioxidant’s significant protective effects on metabolic syndrome, however, not yet on metabolic syndrome-related kidney disease. This study evaluates the effect of whole grape on kidney disease associated with metabolic syndrome. Material and methods: Preclinical model of metabolic syndrome-related kidney disease, Obese ZSF-1 rats, ingested whole grape powder (5% of daily diet) for 6 months. Blood and urine samples were analyzed monthly to assess renal function parameters including 24-hour urine volumes, proteinuria, and urine protein to creatinine ratio (PCR). Rats’ kidney tissue histopathology and PCR array studies were conducted. In vitro kidney cell death was examined in cultured podocytes using flow cytometry. Results: Here, collective data from 6-month preclinical study showed chronic kidney disease consistent with an early stage diabetic nephropathy picture in both experimental and control groups. Renal function in rats of the experimental group was significantly enhanced compared with those of the control group, indicated by less 24-hour urine volumes (34.79 ± 15.77 mL vs. 55.8 ± 20.27 mL, p = 0.0147) and less proteinuria (8.56 ± 5.71 g vs. 24.01 ± 37.51 g, p = 0.0412) in the experimental group. Urine PCR was significantly lower in the experimental group versus control (3.42 ± 1.289 vs. 9.722 ± 9.156, p = 0.0084). Histopathology and PCR array analysis showed less oxidative stress picture in experimental group versus control. In vitro antioxidant assays showed significantly reduced H2O2-induced cell death in podocytes treated with grape extract versus control. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that daily intake of whole grape powder has a protective effect on the kidney in obese ZSF-1 rats, suggesting the potential of grape antioxidants as a prevention strategy for reducing kidney disease progression in metabolic syndrome patients. Further investigations are required to support this preliminary study.

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