UBC Theses and Dissertations
The effect of acute high-intensity interval exercise on toll-like receptor expression and monocyte subsets in type 2 diabetes Durrer, Cody
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by a state of chronic low-grade inflammation that is implicated in driving the pathophysiology of the disease. Exercise has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects but the impact of high-intensity interval training, an exercise strategy gaining popularity for the prevention and treatment of T2D, is not known. The research in this thesis examined the impact of a single session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cellular, molecular, and circulating markers of inflammation in individuals with T2D and healthy age-matched controls. Participants completed an acute bout of high-intensity interval training (7 X 1-min @ ~85% maximal aerobic power output, separated by 1-min recovery) on a cycle ergometer with blood samples obtained before (Pre), immediately after (Post), and at one hour of recovery (1-h Post). Inflammatory markers on white blood cells were measured by flow cytometry, plasma cytokines assessed by multiplex assay, and innate immune activation measured in whole blood cultures stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results showed that a single session of HIIT had an overall anti-inflammatory effect, as evidenced by: i) significantly lower levels of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) surface protein expression on both classical and CD16+ monocytes assessed at both Post and 1-h Post compared with Pre (p<0.05 for all); ii) significantly lower levels of plasma tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha at 1-h Post (p<0.05 vs. Pre); and iii) significantly lower LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha release in whole blood cultures at 1-h Post (p<0.05 vs. Pre). There were no differences between T2D and age-matched control participants in these responses to exercise (all main effects of time, p<0.05). In conclusion, the results of this study provide evidence that a single session of low-volume HIIT has direct immunomodulatory effects and supports the potential anti-inflammatory benefits of this type of exercise for people with, and without, T2D.
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