UBC Theses and Dissertations
Antimicrobial efficacy of different calcium hydroxide containing preparations against biofilms at different stages of biofilm development Alamri, Hadi M.
Objective: To quantify and assess the antibacterial effect of different medicaments on young and aged biofilms, and to modify the medicaments in order to increase their antibacterial effect. Hypotheses: Microbes in aged biofilms grown from a mixture of oral bacteria are more resistant to the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide than microbes in young biofilms. Biofilms are less resistant to calcium hydroxide combined with other antimicrobial agents than to pure calcium hydroxide. Methodology: Collagen coated hydroxyapatite disks were immersed in plaque suspension solution and incubated for one and three weeks to grow young and aged biofilms, respectively. The tested medicaments were calcium hydroxide, iodine potassium iodide, cetrimide, and the following combinations: iodine potassium iodide + cetrimide, calcium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide + iodine potassium iodide, calcium hydroxide + cetrimide, calcium hydroxide + iodine potassium iodide + cetrimide. After exposure to the medicaments for one day, one week, and two weeks, biofilms on disks were stained with a LIVE/DEAD viability stain and imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The three-dimensional reconstructions of the images were done and proportions of green and red fluorescence were measured and statistically analyzed. Results: Aged biofilms were thicker than the young biofilms. All tested medicaments showed reduced antibacterial activity on the aged biofilms compared to young biofilms. Combining iodine potassium iodide to cetrimide had an additive effect and mixed with calcium hydroxide showed stronger antibacterial effect than calcium hydroxide alone. Conclusions: Aged biofilms are more resistant to antibacterial agents than young biofilms. Combining iodine potassium iodide and cetrimide to calcium hydroxide resulted in an antibacterial effect that was stronger than using calcium hydroxide alone.
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