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The factor structure of schizotypy and its relationship to social functioning Zhang, Lisa Chiyun


A three-factor model of schizotypy is the prevailing theoretical model in the literature. However, item-level factor analyses of schizotypy measures suggest that a four- or five-factor model may provide the best fit for this construct. Few item-level factor analyses of these measures have been conducted, and these analyses have generally used smaller samples with relatively few males. To address these issues and to further explore the factor structure of schizotypy, we conducted an exploratory item-level factor analysis of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) on a sample of 1850 undergraduate students (562 males). We found evidence supporting a five-factor model consisting of: Mistrust, Social Anhedonia, Unusual Beliefs and Experiences, Social Anxiety, and Oddity/Eccentricity factors. This model emerged in both males and females. Although the factor structure appeared gender invariant, there were some gender differences in scores on these factors. Males scored higher than females on the Mistrust, Social Anhedonia, and Oddity/Eccentricity factors, while females scored higher than males on the Social Anxiety factors. We also investigated the functional correlates of these schizotypy factors. A series of correlational analyses revealed that four out of five of our derived factors were significantly correlated with overall social functioning (with the exception of the Unusual Beliefs and Experiences factor). The magnitude of the correlation between the negative symptom factor that emerged from factor analysis, Social Anhedonia, and social functioning was greater than the magnitude of the correlation between any of the other factors and social functioning.

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