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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Rutas textuales de la exclusión : raza y etnicidad en textos de enunciación andina del Perú colonial y republicano Grillo Arbulú, María Teresa


My dissertation examines representations of ethnicity and race in narratives from the beginning of the conquest and colonization (XVI century) to the present, which I call “discourses of Andean enunciation” in Peru. These discourses are formulated, either orally or in writing, by Andean subjects ethnically self-identified as Indian/indigenous. In Latin American studies, emphasis has been given to notions such as “hybridity” and “mestizaje”, diminishing the relevance of the idea of race. Also, Andean authors’ rhetorical tools as strategies of resistance have been highlighted. My dissertation traces the inclusion and evolution of an idea of race in discourses by marginalized Andean subjects. The body of primary texts belongs to different periods starting from Spaniards’ arrival in the Andes to the present millennium: Instrucción al Licenciado don Lope García de Castro (1570) by Titu Cusi Yupanqui; El Primer Nueva Corónica y Buen Gobierno (1615) by Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala; Representación verdadera ... (1750) by Fray Calixto Túpac Inca; Huillca. Habla un Campesino Peruano (1974), enunciated by Saturnino Huillca and edited by Hugo Neira Samanez and Hilos de mi Vida (2002) by Hilaria Supa Huamán. The corpus is analyzed from a diachronic perspective, in order to find continuities and ruptures in the ways race and ethnicity are represented. My working hypothesis suggests that an idea of race can be traced back to the beginnings of colonization and is imposed by the dominant society through discourses on religion and education. I argue that this idea is reformulated by Andean marginalized subjects of enunciation, who resist it and simultaneously incorporate some of its discoursive elements, thus revealing its impact as a mechanism of domination. The body of the dissertation is divided into three chapters, dealing with representations of the conquest and colonization, the decades before and after Tupac Amaru II’s revolution; and the contemporary period. The study of the primary texts is complemented with a review of other selected texts by Andean, Spanish and “criollo” or “mestizo” authors, in order to contextualize the emergence of the primary texts.

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