UBC Theses and Dissertations
Computational analysis of fluid structure interaction in artificial heart valves Yeh, Han Hung
The development of heart valve stenosis and sclerosis can lead to the development of fatal complications such as congestive heart failure. Therefore, severe valve stenosis requires a surgical operation with artificial heart valve replacement. Given that the geometrical differences between artificial valves would significantly influence hemodynamic performance around the implanted valve, additional knowledge for the interactions between blood flow and the artificial valve is necessary. Therefore, in order to proceed, this study proposes an advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation using a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) technique to investigate artificial valve leaflet motion under different physiological conditions. Among various FSI technique, it is proposed to simulate the motion of the artificial heart valve with a fully-coupled algorithm and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation (ALE) using a monolithic solver. Models are constructed using a realistic aortic root for both the bileaflet and bioprosthetic valves with additional modifications and considerations for the flexible arterial wall. Normal physiological blood pressure and conditions are used to simulate healthy scenarios, which are compared with experiments. Validation is conducted by analysing particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental data from ViVitro Lab. Hemodynamic performance analyses are conducted and found that both velocity and maximum von Mises stress are higher if calculated using a rigid wall model. The leaflet dynamics, on the other hand, is relatively the same for rigid or flexible wall model. Clinically relevant scenarios are also simulated for both mechanical and bioprosthetic valves. The clinical focus for the mechanical valve is on the malfunction of the valve due to leaflet restrictions. In addition, the clinical focus for the bioprosthetic valve is on the systolic deficiency due to different tissue properties.
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