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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Spatial reuse scheduling and localization for underwater acoustic communication networks Roee, Diamant


Ocean exploration, through the development of ocean-observation systems, is a key step towards a fuller understanding of life on Earth. Underwater acoustic communication networks (UWANs) will help to fulfill the needs of these ocean-observation systems, whose applications include gathering of scientific data, early warning systems, ecosystem monitoring and military surveillance. The data derived from UWANs is typically interpreted with reference to the location of a data collecting node, e.g. when reporting an event occurrence, or the location of an object itself is of interest, e.g. when tracking a moving underwater vehicle or diver. In this dissertation, we develop methods for localization and efficient data exchange in UWANs. In the first part of this work, we focus on underwater localization (UWL). Since global positioning system signals do not propagate through water, UWL is often based on fusing information from acceleration-based sensors and ranging information to anchor nodes with known locations. We consider practical challenges of UWL. The propagation speed varies with depth and location, anchor and unlocalized nodes are not time-synchronized, nodes are moving due to ocean currents, propagation delay measurements for ranging of non-line-of-sight communication links are mistakenly identified as line-of-sight, and unpredictable changes in the ocean current makes it hard to determine motion models for tracking. Taking these features of UWL into account, we propose localization and tracking schemes that exploit the spatially correlated ocean current, nodes' constant motion, and the periodicity of ocean waves. In the second part of this thesis, we use location information to develop medium access control scheduling algorithms and channel coding schemes. We focus on adaptive scheduling in which each node transmits based on timely network information. Specifically, our scheduling algorithms utilize the long propagation delay in the channel and the sparsity of the network topology to improve throughput, reliability and robustness to topology changes. To evaluate performance, we have developed a simulator combining existing numerical models of ocean current and of power attenuation in the ocean. We have also verified simulation results in four sea experiments of different channel bathymetry structures, using both industry and self-developed underwater acoustic modems.

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Attribution 2.5 Canada