UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Microfabricated electromagnetic actuators for confocal measurements and imaging Mansoor, Hadi


Various optical microscopy techniques have been developed for micrometer level imaging of biological tissue samples. Among those techniques, confocal imaging provides superior image contrast and high resolution with a modest system cost. Confocal microscopy allows vertical optical sectioning (imaging a section perpendicular to the surface of tissue) or horizontal optical sectioning (imaging a section parallel to the surface of tissue) and provides high-resolution tissue morphology that is analogous to conventional histopathology images. This has brought up a tremendous potential for guiding surgical biopsies and in vivo non-invasive diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. The challenge in moving microscopic imaging modalities into clinical applications is miniaturization into a form of hand-held devices or catheters for endoscopic applications. In this thesis, micro-fabrication techniques such as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication process and laser micromachining have been employed to develop magnetic actuators. The actuators are then used to move lenses and optical fibers in order to scan a laser beam across a sample. Lens and fiber actuators are integrated in catheter and hand-held devices for confocal thickness measurement and optical sectioning imaging of biological samples. Thickness measurement is performed by scanning the focal point of a microlens across the thickness of thin films or layered biological tissues and collecting the intensity signal of the single scattering light reflected back from the samples as a function of lens position. A catheter was developed and thickness measurements of polymer layers and biological tissues were demonstrated. The device has optical resolution of 32 µm with expanded uncertainty of measurement of 11.86 µm. Lens and fiber optic actuators have been coupled to form two-dimensional imaging devices. Direct and real-time vertical and horizontal cross-sectional imaging of biological samples has been demonstrated. Vertical imaging is performed by transverse (X-axis) and axial (Z-axis) scanning of a focused laser beam using an optical fiber and a microlens actuator respectively. Horizontal imaging is done by a 2-axis fiber optic scanner. All the developed actuators are driven by electromagnetic forces and require low driving voltages. Confocal imaging of biological samples, with lateral resolution of 1.55 µm, has been demonstrated.

Item Media

Item Citations and Data


Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International