UBC Theses and Dissertations
Nonperturbative quantum field theory in astrophysics Mazur, Daniel Paul
The extreme electromagnetic or gravitational fields associated with some astrophysical objects can give rise to macroscopic effects arising from the physics of the quantum vacuum. Therefore, these objects are incredible laboratories for exploring the physics of quantum field theories. In this dissertation, we explore this idea in three astrophysical scenarios. In the early universe, quantum fluctuations of a scalar field result in the generation of particles, and of the density fluctuations which seed the large- scale structure of the universe. These fluctuations are generated through quantum processes, but are ultimately treated classically. We explore how a quantum-to-classical transition may occur due to non-linear self-interactions of the scalar field. This mechanism is found to be too inefficient to explain classicality, meaning fields which do not become classical because of other mechanisms may maintain some evidence of their quantum origins. Magnetars are characterized by intense magnetic fields. In these fields, the quantum vacuum becomes a non-linear optical medium because of interactions between light and quantum fluctuations of electron-positron pairs. In addition, there is a plasma surrounding the magnetar which is a dissipative medium. We construct a numerical simulation of electromagnetic waves in this environment which is non-perturbative in the wave amplitudes and background field. This simulation reveals a new class of waves with highly non-linear structure that are stable against shock formation. The dense nuclear material in a neutron star is expected to be in a type-II superconducting state. In that case, the star’s intense magnetic fields will penetrate the core and crust through a dense lattice of flux tubes. However, depending on the details of the free energy associated with these flux tubes, the nuclear material may be in a type-I state which completely expels the field. We compute the quantum corrections to the classical energies of these flux tubes by creating a new, massively parallel Monte-Carlo simulation. The quantum contribution tends to make a small contribution which adds to the classical free energy. We also find a non-local interaction energy with a sign that depends on the field profile and spacing between flux tubes.
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