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Phylogeny and systematics of the jumping spider subfamily Euophryinae (Araneae : Salticidae), with consideration of biogeography and genitalic evolution Zhang, Junxia

Abstract

The Euophryinae is one of the largest subfamilies of jumping spiders (Salticidae) with worldwide distribution. As the only currently recognized salticid subfamily that has diversified almost evenly in both the Old and New World, its historical biogeography is particularly interesting. To clarify the phylogeny of Euophryinae, I amplified and sequenced four genes (nuclear: 28S rDNA, Actin 5C; mitochondrial: 16S-ND1, COI) from 261 jumping spider species, most euophryines, covering all major distribution areas of this subfamily. The molecular phylogeny strongly supports the monophyly of euophryines. Diolenius and its relatives are shown to be euophryines. The phylogeny also indicates euophryines from different continents tend to form their own clades with few cases of mixture. Temporal divergence of Euophryinae was investigated to understand its historical biogeography. The results suggest rapid radiations early during their evolutionary history, with most divergences after the Eocene. Given the age, several intercontinental dispersal events are required to explain the distribution of euophryines. The suggested tolerance to cold may have facilitated early dispersals between the Old and New World through the Antarctic land bridge. I also extensively studied morphological characteristics of a broad range of euophryine genera and species in order to extend our phylogenetic understanding beyond those taxa sampled for molecular data. Systematics of Euophryinae is discussed and a full list of euophryine genera is provided with 122 genera included (34 genera before this study). Euophryine generic groups and redefined delimitations for some genera are reviewed in detail, with 22 new synonyms of genera and 191 new combinations of species proposed. Photographs and illustrations of 173 euophryine species are provided. In addition, 14 new genera and 96 new species of euophryines are described. Correlated evolution between female copulatory duct and male embolus of euophryines was studied in a phylogenetic context. Intra-specific variation of these traits was also examined. The study reveals a positive correlation between the lengths of female copulatory duct and male embolus among euophryine species. However, the inter- and intra-specific variation patterns are not sufficient to tell whether this correlation results from sexual selection or species recognition mechanisms.

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