UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Prediction of cutting forces in three- and five-axis ball-end milling with tool indentation effect Tuysuz, Oguzhan


In machining, the desired final shape is created in Computer Aided Design (CAD) environment and this information is forwarded to Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) phase in which the toolpath is generated and converted to machine specific commands for part manufacturing. The steps in CAD/CAM environments are geometry dependent only, and do not include the physics of the process. However, mathematical modeling of the machining operation gives the flexibility of identifying and resolving process related issues i.e. tool breakage, chatter vibrations and tolerance violations beforehand, which in turn leads to increased productivity. The first step of process modeling is to model the mechanics of the operation that leads to the prediction of the cutting forces experienced by the cutting tool and the workpiece. In this study the mechanics of ball-end tool which is commonly used to machine parts with free-form geometric features are studied. The main problem in ball-end milling mechanics is tool indentation which leads to inaccurate force prediction in tool axial direction, and has previously been solved experimentally only for specific cases. This thesis presents a generalized ball-end tool indentation detection and indentation force prediction model for any kind of work material and cutting tool geometry combinations. The static ball-end milling forces with indentation forces are predicted by developing an analytical cutting edge indentation model. The proposed model utilizes indentation mechanics of punch and wedge shape indenters, describes the required conditions for indentation occurrence and evaluates plastic and elastic contact pressures at the cutting edge and workpiece interface using the material properties of the workpiece. Cutting edge indentation mechanism is also studied through finite element (FE) modeling. A general FE model is obtained for the problem and results are reported only for the material cut in the thesis. The model proposed in the thesis has been verified experimentally. After integrating the developed indentation force prediction model into the cutting force model, predictions in tool axial direction are improved by 15-40% depending on type of the operation. The contribution of the thesis can be used in cutting force based ball-end milling process optimization and analysis for industrial applications.

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