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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Conventional and multi-frequency tympanometric norms for Caucasian and Chinese school-aged children Bosaghzadeh, Vahideh


Objectives: The present study used tympanometric parameters to evaluate application of the current norms in Caucasian and Chinese school-aged children. The goals of this study were 1) to establish normative tympanometric data for school-aged children; 2) to determine whether the results vary significantly between Caucasian and Chinese children, male and female children, and children and adults; and 3) to compare normal paediatric tympanometric data with tympanometric data obtained from children with middle-ear pathology. Design: Tympanometry was measured in 98 subjects with normal middle-ear function with an average age of 5.8 years. There were a total of 66 participants who had abnormal middle-ear condition with a mean age of six years. Control group subjects were recruited from elementary schools in the Greater Vancouver area. Subjects with middle-ear effusion (MEE) were consisted of two groups. Those with confirmed middle-ear effusion (21 subjects) classified as “OTL confirmed” and those who recruited at elementary schools (eight subjects) were classified as “not OTL confirmed”. Statistical analysis (mixed-model ANOVA) was performed for effects of gender, ethnicity (Caucasian versus Chinese), age (child versus adult), and middle-ear condition. Conventional 226-Hz and multi-frequency tympanometry performed using GSI- Tympstar tympanometer (v. 2). . Results: Vanhuyse patterns were single peak (1B1G) at 226-Hz probe-tone frequency, but more complex patterns (e.g. 1B3G) were observed at higher probe-tone frequencies. Chinese school-aged children had lower Vea and Ytm, wider TW, and higher RF values than did Caucasian school-aged children. Diseased group tympanometric data was significantly different from normal group data. Statistical comparison of the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) plots revealed that Ytm at 678-Hz had better test performance in distinguishing normal middle-ear status from MEE than did Ytm at other probe-tone frequencies (226-, and 1000-Hz). The results showed that Ytm from a 678-Hz probe-tone frequency, TW, and RF had the highest sensitivity, highest specificity, and statistically higher test performance in identification of MEE. Conclusions: A preliminary set of normative tympanometric data revealed significant differences between Caucasian and Chinese school-aged children and also between children and adults. Therefore, application of ethnic-specific criteria changes sensitivity or specificity of tympanometry in clinics.

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