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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Air-fuel ratio control in spark ignition internal combustion engines using switching LPV techniques Postma, Marius


The Three-Way Catalytic Converter (TWC) is a critical component for the mitigation of tailpipe emissions of modern Internal Combustion (IC) engines. Because the TWC operates effectively only when a stoichiometric ratio of air and fuel is combusted in the engine, accurate control of the air-fuel ratio is required. To track the desired ratio, a switching Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) air-fuel ratio feedback controller, scheduled based on engine speed and air flow, and providing guaranteed L2 performance, is introduced. The controller measures the air-fuel ratio in the exhaust flow using a Universal Exhaust Gas Oxygen (UEGO) sensor and adjusts the amount of fuel injected accordingly. A detailed model of the air-fuel ratio control problem is developed to demonstrate the non-linear and parameter-dependent nature of the plant, as well as the presence of pure delays. The model’s dynamics vary considerably with engine speed and air flow. A simplified model, widely used in literature and known as a First Order Plus Dead Time (FOPDT) model, is then derived. It effectively captures the control problem using a model which is linear but parameter-varying with engine speed and air flow. Large variation of the FOPDT model across the engine’s operating range has led to conservative LPV controllers in previous literature. For this reason, the operating range is divided into smaller subregions, and an individual LPV controller is designed for each subregion. The LPV controllers are then switched based on the current engine speed and air flow and are collectively referred to as a switching LPV controller. The controller design problem is expressed as a Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI ) convex optimization problem which can be efficiently solved using available LMI techniques. Simulations are performed and the air-fuel ratio tracking performance of the switching LPV controller is compared with that of conventional controllers including, H∞ and LPV, as well as a novel adaptive controller. The switching LPV controller achieves improved performance over the complete operating range of the engine.

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