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In search of viable policy options for responsible use of sardine resources in the Bali Strait, Indonesia Buchary, Eny Anggraini

Abstract

Traditional fisheries in developing countries are often marginalized from mainstream policymaking. This is crucial as many people depend on these fisheries for their livelihood. Using a case study of a traditional, medium-scale sardine (Sardinella lemuru) fishery employing paired purse seiners (slerek) in the upwelling ecosystem of the Bali Strait, Indonesia, the overall objective of this dissertation is to search for viable policy options for responsible use of the sardine resources. This is achieved by exploring issues in multiple domains: biological, ecological, social, economic and human dimensions. A synthesis of the official catch statistics shows that administrative inefficiencies and lack of good governance have created different versions of production statistics for the fishery. Not all sardine caught and landed are entirely reported; on average fishing-day, only about 45% of the catch is landed in government landing sites. Analyses show that the slerek fishery, contributes to the practise of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. From 1950 to 2001, only half to one-third of what were actually caught were reported. A socio-economic analysis indicates that financial uncertainty and poverty are the main reasons for this IUU fishing practise. Poverty index of average slerek fishing households plunged from 25.7 in 2004 to -8.6 in 2008, as the loan interest rate was set up to 38% per annum and sardine are dwindling. Single-species and ecosystem-based assessments concluded that the slerek fishery has overexploited the sardine resources. Ecosystem analyses (Ecopath with Ecosim: EwE) using 20-year simulations (2001-20) suggest that climatic variability would increase the fishery; with a caveat of increased landing volatility. Insights derived from five harvest strategies tested using stochastic El Niño effects show that only 50% fishing effort reduction from the 2001 level could provide a sustainable option in the long term. Finally, an evaluation of the sustainability status of these harvest strategies was implemented using RAPFISH with a newly-proposed evaluation field, the human dimensions of traditional fisheries. Results show that trade-offs between economic and human dimension options are crucial in our case, as forgone values from human dimension option is more than what we can derive from choosing an economic option.

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International

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