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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The effect of various dehydration techniques on ginsenoside recovery from North American ginseng and bioactive properties on 3T3-L1 adipose tissue cell line Purnama, Monica


Three dehydration techniques, applied to North American ginseng roots (NAG), were evaluated to determine the subsequent pore characteristics, recovery of the ginsenoside content, and the related bioactive properties on a cultured 3T3-L1 fat cell line. Fresh North American ginseng roots were shredded prior to air drying (AD), freeze drying (FD), and vacuum-microwave drying (VMD) processes. Total porosities and pore distribution measurements were determined using a mercury porosimeter. Among samples, FD ginseng obtained the highest total porosity followed by VMD and AD, respectively. All dehydrated samples showed a porous structure with pore sizes ranged from 0.002 µm to 172 µm. Dried ginseng root matrices, regardless of dehydration methods, were mainly constituted by macropores (>1.5μm). Pore characteristics of dried ginseng roots may affect the ginsenosides exposure with extraction solvent. As total porosity increases, the total ginsenoside content may also increase. Therefore, ginsenoside content of dried NAG following methanolic extraction was determined to evaluate the relationship between dried NAG pore characteristics and the subsequent ginsenoside extraction. Ginsenoside composition was determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Total ginsenoside content, derived from the seven individual ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, Rg3), were affected by the dehydration methods employed. AD process recovered the lowest amount of total ginsenosides, followed by VMD and FD processes, which recovered relatively similar amounts of total ginsenosides. The comparable total ginsenoside amounts of VMD and FD ginseng root extracts suggests that the relationship between pore characteristics and the subsequent extraction of bioactive component was highly dependent on the dried food material. The bioactivity potential of all ginseng extracts on 3T3-L1 adipose tissue cells was exhibited following AD, VMD, and FD processes. Dried North American ginseng root extracts (NAGEs), regardless of dehydration techniques, affected the viabilities of pre-confluent and post-confluent preadipocytes as well as mature adipocyte cells. Moreover, dried NAGEs at non-toxic levels were able to inhibit adipogenesis when added to both pre- and post-confluent preadipocytes. These results, therefore, showed that dehydration techniques affected the pore characteristics and the subsequent ginsenoside recoveries of NAG, and the dried NAGEs exhibited bioactive potential on 3T3-L1 adipose tissue cells.

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