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The effectiveness of a comprehensive nutrition and exercise program on the risk for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease Charlebois, Ashley

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects a significant proportion of the population, and its incidence and prevalence is increasing. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in this population. Nutrition and exercise each play an important role in decreasing the cardiovascular risk factors that are commonly seen in patients with CKD. However, there is limited information available regarding the combined effects of both nutrition and exercise for improvement in cardiovascular risk factors and health status of individuals with pre-dialysis CKD. The primary purpose of this research was to determine whether a comprehensive nutrition and exercise program reduces the risk for CVD in persons with CKD, compared to a control CKD population not enrolled in the program. We recruited 36 pre-dialysis CKD patients, 21 of whom were randomized to the intervention program, and 15 of whom were randomized to the control group. Participants of the exercise group attended a 5-week “cooking with kidney disease” course and a 1-week shopping tour with a Registered Dietitian. The participants then engaged in a 12-week supervised exercise training program. The control group received usual care for CKD. Patients were assessed at baseline, post-nutrition, and post-exercise. During these days measurements of anthropometric and musculoskeletal fitness, resting measures of cardiovascular health, and results of a sub-maximal aerobic test were collected. No significant improvements were seen in BMI, waist circumference, sum of 5 skinfolds, or musculoskeletal fitness measures (grip strength or flexibility). Participants in the experimental group showed significant improvements in VO2max post-intervention when compared to baseline (12.7 ± 1.4 vs. 11.9 ± 1.6 ml/kg/min respectively; p

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