UBC Theses and Dissertations
Prevention of posterior capsule opacification by photodynamic therapy with localized benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA) in a rabbit surgical model Meadows, Howard Earl
Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is a major component of secondary cataract, a complication of current cataract surgery practice. This iatrogenic condition occurs in virtually all pediatric cases and to a lesser extent in adults. PCO correlates with the development in the latter half of the 20th Century of extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE). In these surgeries, the lens capsule is left intact. During ECCE surgery a circular capsulotomy opening is created in the anterior lens capsule, and the cataractous, proteinaceous lens is removed, often via ultrasonic lens liquefaction i.e. phacoemulsification. The posterior, equatorial and remaining anterior portions of the sac-like capsule are left intact, permitting the insertion of an artificial lens into the emptied capsule. However, cells from the monolayer of epithelium on the inner surface of the capsule often begin to proliferate and migrate onto the normally cell-free inner surface of the posterior capsule, and may obscure the central axis of vision. Subsequently, a second surgery is necessary to create a small capsulotomy in the centre of the posterior capsule, usually employing an Nd:YAG laser. However, up to 5% of patients who have capsulotomies may then develop further serious, vision-threatening complications such as macular edema and retinal detachments. This thesis reports the photodynamic therapy (PDT) conditions required to prevent lens epithelial (LE) cell de novo proliferation and migration onto posterior lens capsules in a euthanized rabbit surgical model in order to predict parameters required to prevent PCO in humans. Experiments with primary in vitro cultures of human LE cells have shown rapid delivery of the photosensitizer benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA) and efficient killing with low light doses of 690 nm red light. Additional studies have shown the efficacy of various viscous agents in protecting the comeal endothelium. During model phacoemulsification ECCE surgeries, the use of hyaluronate viscoelastic carriers addressed the need for containment necessary for localized delivery of photosensitizer in the emptied capsule. Long-term monitoring of PDT-treated rabbit lens capsules in vitro has demonstrated a phototoxic effect including complete cell kill in this surgical model employing the prophylactic use of PDT.
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