UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Use of alternative feed ingredients and the effects on growth and flesh quality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria). Friesen, Erin


Aquaculture feeds, traditionally composed mainly of fishmeal and fish oil, currently represent the largest cost to fish farmers. With aquaculture growing at an average of 8.8% per year and limited supply of fishmeal and fish oil, suitable alternatives must be found. In addition to increasing sustainability and lowering production costs, the use of plant and/or animal ingredients has the potential to lower flesh levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls. Fish oil and to a lesser extent fishmeal, are considered to be the largest source POPs in farmed fish. Using alternative feed ingredients however, can compromise fish growth and the flesh quality of the final product. Lipid sources including flaxseed oil, canola oil, poultry fat and the protein sources canola protein concentrate, soy protein concentrate and poultry by-product meal were examined as alternatives to fish oil and fishmeal in one on-farm field study and one laboratory feeding trial with Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar) and two laboratory feeding trials conducted on sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria), a relatively new marine aquaculture species. The nutritive value of the alternative ingredients was assessed on the basis of fish growth performance, proximate composition, fatty acid composition and apparent digestibility coefficients. Sensory attributes were evaluated in the sablefish studies while flesh POP levels were determined in both species. The use of alternative dietary lipids showed no negative effects on fish performance. However replacement of fishmeal with plant proteins in some cases, negatively affected fish growth. Flesh levels of persistent organic pollutants were significantly decreased (p<0.05) with the use of alternative dietary lipids, and flesh levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were also depressed. Activated carbon treated anchovy oil and finishing diets were examined in the Atlantic salmon laboratory feeding trial and were effective at lowering flesh POP levels while providing high levels of EPA and DHA. The use of alternative feed ingredients will soon be inevitable in aquaculture feeds. The current research shows alternative lipids and proteins can be incorporated successfully in sablefish and Atlantic salmon feeds with minimal effects on fish growth and quality.

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