UBC Theses and Dissertations
Applying computational fluid dynamics to speech : with a focus on the speech sounds 'pa' and 'sh' Anderson, Peter J.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are used to investigate two speech phenomena. The first phenomenon is the English bilabial plosive /pa/. Simulations are compared with microphone recordings and high speed video recordings to study the penetration rate and strength of the jet associated with the plosive /pa/. It is found that the dynamics in the first 10ms of the plosive are critical to penetration rate, and the static simulation was not able to capture this effect. However, the simulation is able to replicate the penetration rate after the initial 10ms. The second speech phenomenon is the English fricative /sh/. Here, the goal is to simulate the sound created during /sh/ to understand the flow mechanisms involved with the creation of this sound and to investigate the simulation design required to predict the sound adequately. A variety of simulation methods are tested, and the results are compared with previously published experimental results. It is found that all Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations give bad results, and 2D Large Eddy Simulations (LES) also have poor results. The 3D LES simulations show the most promise, but still do not produce a closely matching spectra. It is found that the acoustic analogy matches the direct measurements fairly well in 3D simulations. The studies of /pa/ and /sh/ are compared and contrasted with each other. From the findings of the studies, and using theoretical considerations, arguments are made concerning which CFD methods are appropriate for speech research. The two studies are also considered for their direct applications to the field and future research directions which might be followed.
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