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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Cutter-workpiece engagement identification in multi-axis milling Aras, Eyyup


This thesis presents cutter swept volume generation, in-process workpiece modeling and Cutter Workpiece Engagement (CWE) algorithms for finding the instantaneous intersections between cutter and workpiece in milling. One of the steps in simulating machining operations is the accurate extraction of the intersection geometry between cutter and workpiece. This geometry is a key input to force calculations and feed rate scheduling in milling. Given that industrial machined components can have highly complex geometries, extracting intersections accurately and efficiently is challenging. Three main steps are needed to obtain the intersection geometry between cutter and workpiece. These are the Swept volume generation, in-process workpiece modeling and CWE extraction respectively. In this thesis an analytical methodology for determining the shapes of the cutter swept envelopes is developed. In this methodology, cutter surfaces performing 5-axis tool motions are decomposed into a set of characteristic circles. For obtaining these circles a concept of two-parameter-family of spheres is introduced. Considering relationships among the circles the swept envelopes are defined analytically. The implementation of methodology is simple, especially when the cutter geometries are represented by pipe surfaces. During the machining simulation the workpiece update is required to keep track of the material removal process. Several choices for workpiece updates exist. These are the solid, facetted and vector model based methodologies. For updating the workpiece surfaces represented by the solid or faceted models third party software can be used. In this thesis multi-axis milling update methodologies are developed for workpieces defined by discrete vectors with different orientations. For simplifying the intersection calculations between discrete vectors and the tool envelope the properties of canal surfaces are utilized. A typical NC cutter has different surfaces with varying geometries and during the material removal process restricted regions of these surfaces are eligible to contact the in-process workpiece. In this thesis these regions are analyzed with respect to different tool motions. Later using the results from these analyses the solid, polyhedral and vector based CWE methodologies are developed for a range of different types of cutters and multi-axis tool motions. The workpiece surfaces cover a wide range of surface geometries including sculptured surfaces.

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