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Classical and quantum nonlinear optics in confined photonic structures Ghafari Banaee, Mohamadreza

Abstract

Nonlinear optical phenomena associated with high-order soliton breakup in photonic crystal fibres and squeezed state generation in three dimensional photonic crystal microcavities are investigated. In both cases, the properties of periodically patterned, high-index contrast dielectric structures are engineered to control the dispersion and local field enhancements of the electromagnetic field. Ultra-short pulse propagation in a polarization-maintaining microstructured fibre (with 1 um core diameter and 1.1 m length) is investigated experimentally and theoretically. For an 80 MHz train of 130 fs pulses with average propagating powers in the fibre up to 13.8 mW, the output spectra consist of multiple discrete solitons that shift continuously to lower energies as they propagate in the lowest transverse mode of the fibre. The number of solitons and the amount that they shift both increase with the launched power. All of the data is quantitatively consistent with solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, but only when the Raman nonlinearity is treated without approximation, and self-steepening is included. The feasibility of using a parametric down-conversion process to generate squeezed electromagnetic states in 3D photonic crystal microcavity structures is investigated for the first time. The spectrum of the squeezed light is theoretically calculated by using an open cavity quantum mechanical formalism. The cavity communicates with two main channels, which model vertical radiation losses and coupling into a single-mode waveguide respectively. The amount of squeezing is determined by the correlation functions relating the field quadratures of light coupled into the waveguide. All of the relevant model parameters are realistically estimated using 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. Squeezing up to ~20% below the shot noise level is predicted for reasonable optical excitation levels. To preserve the squeezed nature of the light generated in the microcavity, a unidirectional coupling geometry from the microcavity to a ridge waveguide in a slab photonic crystal structure is studied. The structure was successfully fabricated in a silicon membrane, and experimental measurements of the efficiency for the signal coupled out of the structure are in good agreement with the result of FDTD simulations. The coupling efficiency of the cavity mode to the output channel is ~60%.

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