UBC Theses and Dissertations
Resource allocation for OFDM-based cognitive radio systems Zhang, Yonghong
Cognitive radio (CR) is a novel wireless communication approach that may alleviate the looming spectrum-shortage crisis. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is an attractive modulation candidate for CR systems. In this thesis, we study resource allocation (RA) for OFDM-based CR systems using both aggressive and protective sharing. In aggressive sharing, cognitive radio users (CRUs) can share both non-active and active primary user (PU) bands. We develop a model that describes aggressive sharing, and formulate a corresponding multidimensional knapsack problem (MDKP). Low-complexity suboptimal RA algorithms are proposed for both single and multiple CRU systems. A simplified model is proposed which provides a faster suboptimal solution. Simulation results show that the proposed suboptimal solutions are close to optimal, and that aggressive sharing of the whole band can provide a substantial performance improvement over protective sharing, which makes use of only the non-active PU bands. Although aggressive sharing generally yields a higher spectrum-utilization efficiency than protective sharing, aggressive sharing may not be feasible in some situations. In such cases, sharing only non-active PU bands is more appropriate. When there are no fairness or quality of service (QoS) considerations among CRUs, both theoretical analysis and simulation results show that plain equal power allocation (PEPA) yields similar performance as optimal power allocation in a multiuser OFDM-based CR system. We propose a low-complexity discrete bit PEPA algorithm. To improve spectrum-utilization efficiency, while considering the time-varying nature of the available spectrum as well as the fading characteristics of wireless communication channels and providing QoS provisioning and fairness among users, this thesis introduces the following novel algorithms: (1) a distributed RA algorithm that provides both fairness and efficient spectrum usage for ad hoc systems; (2) a RA algorithm for non-real-time (NRT) services that maintains average user rates proportionally on the downlink of multiuser OFDM-based CR systems; and (3) cross-layer RA algorithms for the downlink of multiuser OFDM-based CR systems for both real-time (RT) services and mixed (RT and NRT) services. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms provide satisfactory QoS to all supported services and perform better than existing algorithms designed for multiuser OFDM systems.
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