UBC Theses and Dissertations
Using low-energy ⁸Li beta-detected NMR to probe the magnetism of transition metals Parolin, Terry J.
Low-energy, beta-radiation-detected nuclear magnetic resonance (β-NMR) is applied to probe the magnetism of Au and Pd. The measurements were carried out at the TRIUMF β-NMR facility using optically spin-polarized ⁸Li⁺ as the probe. The behaviour of ⁸Li⁺+ in Au was investigated using samples in the form of a foil and a 100 nm film evaporated onto a MgO (100) substrate. The results are in overall agreement with those obtained previously in Ag, Cu, and Al. Narrow, temperature-independent resonances are observed and assigned to ions stopping in the octahedral interstitial and substitutional lattice sites; the latter appearing only for temperatures above 150 K which is attributed to a thermally-activated site change. The spin-lattice relaxation rate of substitutional site ions is less than half as fast at ambient temperature as that in the other simple metals. The rate is independent of external field for fields greater than 15 mT. A Korringa analysis for the substitutional ions indicates no significant electron enhancement over that of a free electron gas. For all four metals, the enhancements obtained are smaller than those for the host nuclei. No depth dependence was found for the resonances in Au. The highly exchange-enhanced metal Pd was studied using samples in the form of a foil and a 100 nm film evaporated onto a SrTiO₃ (100) substrate. Strongly temperature-dependent, negative shifts are observed that scale with the temperature dependence of the host susceptibility between room temperature and 110 K. The resonances appear as two partially resolved lines that exhibit similar behaviour with temperature. The linewidths are broad and double upon cooling. The data are indicative of ions stopping in a site of cubic symmetry. The spin-lattice relaxation rate increases linearly with increasing temperature and eventually saturates at higher temperatures, consistent with the prediction from spin fluctuation theory. In contrast to the simple metals, large Korringa enhancements are obtained in this host. Ferromagnetic dynamical scaling is observed to hold above 110 K. Features below this temperature indicate that the Li ions locally induce a further enhancement of the static susceptibility. The temperature dependence of the modified susceptibility is in keeping with the prediction for a weak itinerant ferromagnet just above the Curie temperature; however, there is no evidence of static order.
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