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Geochemistry of post-shield lavas from Kea- and Loa-trend Hawaiian volcanoes : constraints on the origin and distribution of heterogeneities in the Hawaiian mantle plume Hanano, Diane

Abstract

The alteration mineralogy, major and trace element chemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions of post-shield lavas from Mauna Kea, Kohala, and Hualalai on the island of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean are used to constrain the origin and distribution of heterogeneities in the Hawaiian mantle plume. Ocean island basalts contain a variety of secondary minerals that must be removed by acid-leaching to achieve high-precision Pb isotopic compositions, a powerful geochemical tracer of variation in plume source composition. Post-shield lavas range from transitional/alkalic basalt to trachyte and are enriched in incompatible trace elements (e.g. LaN/YbN=6.0-16.2) relative to shield stage tholeiites. Post-shield lavas are characterized by a limited range of Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions(⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sr=0.70343-0.70365; ¹⁴³Nd/¹⁴⁴Nd = 0.51292-0.51301;¹⁷⁶Hf/¹⁷⁷Hf= 0.28311-0.28314) and have Pb isotopic compositions(²⁰⁶Pb/²⁰⁴Pb = 17.89-18.44; ²⁰⁷Pb/²⁰⁴ 15.44-15.49;²⁰⁸Pb/²⁰⁴Pb= 37.68-38.01) that belong to their respective Kea or Loa side of the Pb-Pb boundary. Mauna Kea lavas show a systematic shift to less radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions from the shield to post-shield stage and trend to low ⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sr towards compositions characteristic of rejuvenated stage lavas. Hualalai post shield lavas lie distinctly above the Hf-Nd Hawaiian array (ƐHf = +12 to +13; ƐNd = +5.5 to +6.5) and have some of the least radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions (e.g.²⁰⁶/²⁰⁴pb= 17.89-18.01) of recent Hawaiian volcanoes. In contrast, comparison of Kohala with the adjacent Mahukona shows that lavas from these volcanoes become more radiogenic in Pb during the late stages of volcanism. The Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope systematics of the post shield lavas cannot be explained by mixing between the Kea and Koolau end-members or by assimilation of Pacific lithosphere and are consistent with the presence of ancient recycled lower oceanic crust and sediments in their source. More than one depleted component is sampled by the post-shield lavas and these components are long-lived features of the Hawaiian plume that are present in both the Kea and Loa source regions. The geochemistry of the post-shield lavas provide evidence for a bilaterally zoned plume, where the compositional boundary between the Kea and Loa sources is complex and vertical components of heterogeneity are also significant.

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