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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Inductive principles for learning Restricted Boltzmann Machines Swersky, Kevin


We explore the training and usage of the Restricted Boltzmann Machine for unsupervised feature extraction. We investigate the many different aspects involved in their training, and by applying the concept of iterate averaging we show that it is possible to greatly improve on state of the art algorithms. We also derive estimators based on the principles of pseudo-likelihood, ratio matching, and score matching, and we test them empirically against contrastive divergence, and stochastic maximum likelihood (also known as persistent contrastive divergence). Our results show that ratio matching and score matching are promising approaches to learning Restricted Boltzmann Machines. By applying score matching to the Restricted Boltzmann Machine, we show that training an auto-encoder neural network with a particular kind of regularization function is asymptotically consistent. Finally, we discuss the concept of deep learning and its relationship to training Restricted Boltzmann Machines, and briefly explore the impact of fine-tuning on the parameters and performance of a deep belief network.

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