Childhood obesity screening and management for primary care providers : a literature review Le Gal, Laura
Due to an overwhelming rise in childhood obesity (CO), primary care providers (PCPs) need to be cognisant of their pivotal role in assessing, diagnosing, and treating this chronic condition. However, research notes that PCPs face multiple barriers and conflicting recommendations for diagnosing CO resulting in insufficient assessment and management of this condition in children worldwide. The primary objective of this literature review is to evaluate current research and clinical practice guidelines regarding the screening and management of childhood obesity and provide a synthesis of the evidence. A total of 33 primary and secondary sources were reviewed and included in this literature review. Literature and clinical practice guidelines have identified that screening for obesity should begin in all patients two years and older on an annual basis. Screening should include body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), and blood work as necessary. Optimal management of childhood obesity is the 5-2-1-0 program focusing on the education of families and patients about the importance of consuming five or more fruits and vegetables a day, reducing screen time to two hours a day, increasing activity to 60 minutes a day, and restricting all sugary beverage consumption. The aim of this literature review is to reduce obese children from developing diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, in addition to other risk factors pertaining to remaining obese into adulthood and reduced life expectancy.
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