UBC Faculty Research and Publications

Radiomics and Artificial Intelligence in Radiotheranostics: A Review of Applications for Radioligands Targeting Somatostatin Receptors and Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigens Yazdani, Elmira; Geramifar, Parham; Karamzade-Ziarati, Najme; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Amini, Payam; Rahmim, Arman


Radiotheranostics refers to the pairing of radioactive imaging biomarkers with radioactive therapeutic compounds that deliver ionizing radiation. Given the introduction of very promising radiopharmaceuticals, the radiotheranostics approach is creating a novel paradigm in personalized, targeted radionuclide therapies (TRTs), also known as radiopharmaceuticals (RPTs). Radiotherapeutic pairs targeting somatostatin receptors (SSTR) and prostate-specific membrane antigens (PSMA) are increasingly being used to diagnose and treat patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and prostate cancer. In parallel, radiomics and artificial intelligence (AI), as important areas in quantitative image analysis, are paving the way for significantly enhanced workflows in diagnostic and theranostic fields, from data and image processing to clinical decision support, improving patient selection, personalized treatment strategies, response prediction, and prognostication. Furthermore, AI has the potential for tremendous effectiveness in patient dosimetry which copes with complex and time-consuming tasks in the RPT workflow. The present work provides a comprehensive overview of radiomics and AI application in radiotheranostics, focusing on pairs of SSTR- or PSMA-targeting radioligands, describing the fundamental concepts and specific imaging/treatment features. Our review includes ligands radiolabeled by 68Ga, 18F, 177Lu, 64Cu, 90Y, and 225Ac. Specifically, contributions via radiomics and AI towards improved image acquisition, reconstruction, treatment response, segmentation, restaging, lesion classification, dose prediction, and estimation as well as ongoing developments and future directions are discussed.

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