UBC Faculty Research and Publications

The effect of smoking on latent hazard classes of metabolic syndrome using latent class causal analysis method in the Iranian population Khodamoradi, Farzad; Nazemipour, Maryam; Mansournia, Nasrin; Yazdani, Kamran; khalili, Davood; Arshadi, Maedeh; Etminan, Mahyar; Mansournia, Mohammad A.


Background: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide. Clinical guidelines consider metabolic syndrome as an all or none medical condition. One proposed method for classifying metabolic syndrome is latent class analysis (LCA). One approach to causal inference in LCA is using propensity score (PS) methods. The aim of this study was to investigate the causal effect of smoking on latent hazard classes of metabolic syndrome using the method of latent class causal analysis. Methods: In this study, we used data from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Cohort Study (TLGS). 4857 participants aged over 20 years with complete information on exposure (smoking) and confounders in the third phase (2005–2008) were included. Metabolic syndrome was evaluated as outcome and latent variable in LCA in the data of the fifth phase (2014–2015). The step-by-step procedure for conducting causal inference in LCA included: (1) PS estimation and evaluation of overlap, (2) calculation of inverse probability-of-treatment weighting (IPTW), (3) PS matching, (4) evaluating balance of confounding variables between exposure groups, and (5) conducting LCA using the weighted or matched data set. Results: Based on the results of IPTW which compared the low, medium and high risk classes of metabolic syndrome (compared to a class without metabolic syndrome), no association was found between smoking and the metabolic syndrome latent classes. PS matching which compared low and moderate risk classes compared to class without metabolic syndrome, showed that smoking increases the probability of being in the low-risk class of metabolic syndrome (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.32, 3.63). In the unadjusted analysis, smoking increased the chances of being in the low-risk (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.08) and moderate-risk (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.40) classes of metabolic syndrome compared to the class without metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: Based on the results, the causal effect of smoking on latent hazard classes of metabolic syndrome can be different based on the type of PS method. In adjusted analysis, no relationship was observed between smoking and moderate-risk and high-risk classes of metabolic syndrome.

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