Manure Valorization Using Black Soldier Fly Larvae: A Review of Current Systems, Production Characteristics, Utilized Feed Substrates, and Bioconversion and Nitrogen Conversion Efficiencies Grassauer, Florian; Ferdous, Jannatul; Pelletier, Nathan
The growing demand for animal products leads to mounting environmental impacts from the livestock sector. In light of the desired transition from linear to circular nutrient flows and an increasing number of formal commitments toward reducing environmental impacts from livestock production, manure valorization using insects (particularly black soldier fly larvae; BSFL) gains increasing importance. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology, this paper identified 75 BSFL production systems utilizing various types of manure as feed substrates. The review highlights considerable differences in system design regarding the different production steps and their specific characteristics. These differences lead to a wide spectrum of rearing performances, which were measured by a suite of indicators, including dry matter reduction (DMR), waste reduction index (WRI), feed conversion efficiency (FCE), bioconversion rate (BCR), and nitrogen reduction. The results further show that, to date, most manure-valorizing BSFL production systems operate at the micro-scale level. However, specific reduction targets for manure-related emissions will likely necessitate large-scale systems at the farm or industrial level, and further research should thus focus on the comprehensive assessment of potential environmental benefits of manure valorization using BSFL.
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