UBC Faculty Research and Publications

Concept for a Unidirectional Release Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablet for Oral Delivery of Antidiabetic Peptide Drugs Such as Insulin, Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1), and their Analogs Pratap-Singh, Anubhav; Guo, Yigong; Baldelli, Alberto; Singh, Anika


Injectable peptides such as insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and their agonists are being increasingly used for the treatment of diabetes. Currently, the most common route of administration is injection, which is linked to patient discomfort as well as being subjected to refrigerated storage and the requirement for efficient supply chain logistics. Buccal and sublingual routes are recognized as valid alternatives due to their high accessibility and easy administration. However, there can be several challenges, such as peptide selection, drug encapsulation, and delivery system design, which are linked to the enhancement of drug efficacy and efficiency. By using hydrophobic polymers that do not dissolve in saliva, and by using neutral or positively charged nanoparticles that show better adhesion to the negative charges generated by the sialic acid in the mucus, researchers have attempted to improve drug efficiency and efficacy in buccal delivery. Furthermore, unidirectional films and tablets seem to show the highest bioavailability as compared to sprays and other buccal delivery vehicles. This advantageous attribute can be attributed to their capability to mitigate the impact of saliva and inadvertent gastrointestinal enzymatic digestion, thereby minimizing drug loss. This is especially pertinent as these formulations ensure a more directed drug delivery trajectory, leading to heightened therapeutic outcomes. This communication describes the current state of the art with respect to the creation of nanoparticles containing peptides such as insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and their agonists, and theorizes the production of mucoadhesive unidirectional release buccal tablets or films. Such an approach is more patient-friendly and can improve the lives of millions of diabetics around the world; in addition, these shelf-stable formulations ena a more environmentally friendly and sustainable supply chain network.

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