Modification of a Conventional Deep Learning Model to Classify Simulated Breathing Patterns : A Step toward Real-Time Monitoring of Patients with Respiratory Infectious Diseases Park, Jinho; Mah, Aaron James; Nguyen, Thien; Park, Soongho; Ghazi Zadeh, Leili; Shadgan, Babak; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.
The emergence of the global coronavirus pandemic in 2019 (COVID-19 disease) created a need for remote methods to detect and continuously monitor patients with infectious respiratory diseases. Many different devices, including thermometers, pulse oximeters, smartwatches, and rings, were proposed to monitor the symptoms of infected individuals at home. However, these consumer-grade devices are typically not capable of automated monitoring during both day and night. This study aims to develop a method to classify and monitor breathing patterns in real-time using tissue hemodynamic responses and a deep convolutional neural network (CNN)-based classification algorithm. Tissue hemodynamic responses at the sternal manubrium were collected in 21 healthy volunteers using a wearable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device during three different breathing conditions. We developed a deep CNN-based classification algorithm to classify and monitor breathing patterns in real time. The classification method was designed by improving and modifying the pre-activation residual network (Pre-ResNet) previously developed to classify two-dimensional (2D) images. Three different one-dimensional CNN (1D-CNN) classification models based on Pre-ResNet were developed. By using these models, we were able to obtain an average classification accuracy of 88.79% (without Stage 1 (data size reducing convolutional layer)), 90.58% (with 1 × 3 Stage 1), and 91.77% (with 1 × 5 Stage 1).
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