Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene variants modify human airway and systemic responses to indoor dibutyl phthalate exposure Leung, Clarus; Ryu, Min H.; Bølling, Anette K.; Maestre-Batlle, Danay; Rider, Christopher F.; Hüls, Anke; Urtatiz, Oscar; MacIsaac, Julie L.; Lau, Kevin S.; Lin, David T. S.; et al.
Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ; gene: PPARG) and oxidative stress genes are associated with asthma risk. However, whether such variants modulate responses to dibutyl phthalate (DBP), a common plasticizer associated with increased asthma development, remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate how SNPs in PPARG and oxidative stress genes, as represented by two separate genetic risk scores, modify the impact of DBP exposure on lung function and the airway and systemic response after an inhaled allergen challenge. Methods We conducted a double-blinded human crossover study with sixteen allergen-sensitized participants exposed for three hours to DBP and control air on distinct occasions separated by a 4-week washout. Each exposure was followed by an allergen inhalation challenge; subsequently, lung function was measured, and blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were collected and analyzed for cell counts and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). Genetic risk scores for PPAR-γ (P-GRS; weighted sum of PPARG SNPs rs10865710, rs709158, and rs3856806) and oxidative stress (OS-GRS; unweighted sum of 16 SNPs across multiple genes) were developed, and their ability to modify DBP effects were assessed using linear mixed-effects models. Results P-GRS and OS-GRS modified DBP effects on allergen-specific IgE in blood at 20 h (interaction effect [95% CI]: 1.43 [1.13 to 1.80], p = 0.005) and 3 h (0.99 [0.98 to 1], p = 0.03), respectively. P-GRS also modified DBP effects on Th2 cells in blood at 3 h (− 25.2 [− 47.7 to − 2.70], p = 0.03) and 20 h (− 39.1 [− 57.9 to − 20.3], p = 0.0005), and Th2 cells in BAL at 24 h (− 4.99 [− 8.97 to − 1.01], p = 0.02). An increasing P-GRS associated with reduced DBP effect on Th2 cells. Neither GRS significantly modified DBP effects on lung function parameters. Conclusions PPAR-γ variants modulated several airway and systemic immune responses to the ubiquitous chemical plasticizer DBP. Our results suggest that PPAR-γ variants may play a greater role than those in oxidative stress-related genes in airway allergic responses to DBP.
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