UBC Faculty Research and Publications

Optimized Green Extraction of Polyphenols from Cassia javanica L. Petals for Their Application in Sunflower Oil: Anticancer and Antioxidant Properties Younis, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ren, Xiaofeng; Alzubaidi, Azalldeen Kazal; Mahmoud, Khaled Fahmy; Altemimi, Ammar B.; Cacciola, Francesco; Raza, Husnain; Pratap-Singh, Anubhav; Abedelmaksoud, Tarek Gamal

Abstract

The total phenolic content (TPC) from Cassia javanica L. petals were extracted using ethanolic solvent extraction at concentrations ranging from 0 to 90% and an SCF-CO₂ co-solvent at various pressures. Ultrasound-assisted extraction parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Antioxidant and anticancer properties of total phenols were assessed. An SCF-CO₂ co-solvent extract was nano-encapsulated and applied to sunflower oil without the addition of an antioxidant. The results indicated that the best treatment for retaining TPC and total flavonoids content (TFC) was SCF-CO₂ co-solvent followed by the ultrasound and ethanolic extraction procedures. Additionally, the best antioxidant activity by β-carotene/linoleic acid and DPPH free radical-scavenging test systems was observed by SCF-CO₂ co-solvent then ultrasound and ethanolic extraction methods. SCF-CO₂ co-solvent recorded the highest inhibition % for PC3 (76.20%) and MCF7 (98.70%) and the lowest IC50 value for PC3 (145 µ/mL) and MCF7 (96 µ/mL). It was discovered that fortifying sunflower oil with SCF-CO₂ co-solvent nanoparticles had a beneficial effect on free fatty acids and peroxide levels. The SCF-CO₂ method was finally found to be superior and could be used in large-scale processing.

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