Advanced interventions in the pre-hospital resuscitation of patients with non-compressible haemorrhage after penetrating injuries ter Avest, E.; Carenzo, L.; Lendrum, R. A.; Christian, M. D.; Lyon, R. M.; Coniglio, C.; Rehn, M.; Lockey, D. J.; Perkins, Z. B.
Early haemorrhage control and minimizing the time to definitive care have long been the cornerstones of therapy for patients exsanguinating from non-compressible haemorrhage (NCH) after penetrating injuries, as only basic treatment could be provided on scene. However, more recently, advanced on-scene treatments such as the transfusion of blood products, resuscitative thoracotomy (RT) and resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) have become available in a small number of pre-hospital critical care teams. Although these advanced techniques are included in the current traumatic cardiac arrest algorithm of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC), published in 2021, clear guidance on the practical application of these techniques in the pre-hospital setting is scarce. This paper provides a scoping review on how these advanced techniques can be incorporated into practice for the resuscitation of patients exsanguinating from NCH after penetrating injuries, based on available literature and the collective experience of several helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) across Europe who have introduced these advanced resuscitation interventions into routine practice. Graphical Abstract
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