UBC Faculty Research and Publications

The impact of IgG subclass deficiency on the risk of mortality in hospitalized patients with COPD Lee, Hyun; Kovacs, Cara; Mattman, Andre; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Chen, Virginia; Ng, Raymond; Leung, Janice M.; Sin, Don


Background Immunoglobulin G (IgG) deficiency increases the risk of acute exacerbations and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the impact of IgG subclass deficiency on mortality in COPD is unknown. Here, we determined which IgG subclass, if any, is associated with increased risk of mortality in COPD. Methods We measured serum IgG subclass concentrations of 489 hospitalized patients with COPD who were enrolled in the Rapid Transition Program (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02050022). To evaluate the impact of IgG subclass deficiency on 1-year mortality, Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed with adjustments for potential confounders. Results Deficiencies in IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 were present in 1.8%, 12.1%, 4.3%, and 11.2% of patients, respectively. One-year mortality was 56% in patients with IgG1 deficiency, 27% in IgG2 deficiency, 24% in IgG3 deficiency, and 31% in IgG4 deficiency. Cox proportional modeling showed that IgG1 and IgG4 deficiencies increased the 1-year mortality risk with an adjusted hazard ratio of 3.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.55–9.87) and 1.74 (95% CI = 1.02–2.98), respectively. Neither IgG2 nor IgG3 deficiency significantly increased 1-year mortality. Two or more IgG subclass deficiencies were observed in 5.3%. Patients with 2 or more IgG subclass deficiencies had a higher 1-year mortality than those without any deficiencies (46.2% vs. 19.7%, p < 0.001), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.22 (95% CI = 1.18–4.17). Conclusions IgG1 and IgG4 deficiency was observed in 1.8% and 11.2% of hospitalized patients with COPD, respectively, and these deficiencies were associated with a significantly increased risk of 1-year mortality.

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