Comparing Flaxseed and Perindopril in the Prevention of Doxorubicin and Trastuzumab-Induced Cardiotoxicity in C57Bl/6 Mice Eekhoudt, Cameron R.; Bortoluzzi, Tessa; Varghese, Sonu S.; Cheung, David Y. C.; Christie, Simon; Eastman, Skyler; Mittal, Ishika; Austria, J. Alejandro; Aukema, Harold M.; Ravandi, Amir; Thliveris, James; Singal, Pawan K.; Jassal, Davinder S.
Background: Two anti-cancer agents, doxorubicin (DOX) and trastuzumab (TRZ), are commonly used in the management of breast cancer in women. Despite their efficacy in reducing the morbidity and mortality of individuals with breast cancer, the use of these agents is limited by adverse cardiotoxic side effects. Both the nutraceutical agent flaxseed (FLX) and the pharmaceutical drug perindopril (PER) have been studied individually in the prevention of chemotherapy-mediated cardiac dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine whether the prophylactic administration of FLX is comparable and/or synergistic with PER in preventing DOX + TRZ-induced cardiotoxicity. Methods: Over a six-week period, 81 wild-type C57Bl/6 female mice (8–12 weeks old) were randomized to receive regular chow (RC) or 10% FLX-supplemented diets with or without PER (3 mg/kg/week; oral gavage). Starting at week 4, mice were randomized to receive a weekly injection of saline or DOX (8 mg/kg) + TRZ (3 mg/kg). Serial echocardiography was conducted weekly and histological and biochemical analyses were performed at the end of the study. Results: In mice treated with RC + DOX + TRZ, left ventricular ejection (LVEF) decreased from 75 ± 2% at baseline to 37 ± 3% at week 6. However, prophylactic treatment with either FLX, PER, or FLX + PER partially preserved left ventricular systolic function with LVEF values of 61 ± 2%, 62 ± 2%, and 64 ± 2%, respectively. The administration of FLX, PER, or FLX + PER was also partially cardioprotective in preserving cardiomyocyte integrity and attenuating the expression of the inflammatory biomarker NF-κB due to DOX + TRZ administration. Conclusion: FLX was equivalent to PER at preventing DOX + TRZ-induced cardiotoxicity in a chronic in vivo murine model.
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